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邮轮是空气污染重灾区 空气质量比严重污染城市更差

受够了污染严重的城市,想坐邮轮去感受大海清新的空气?小心,你在邮轮上呼吸到的可能会是“毒气”。研究发现,邮轮上的空气很糟,含有大量微粒污染物,甚至比世界上污染最严重的城市空气质量更差。

 

邮轮是空气污染重灾区 空气质量比严重污染城市更差

 

Levels of pollution on some cruise ships' decks are worse than in the world's most polluted cities, an investigation by Channel 4 Dispatches has found.
英国第四频道《深入报道》节目调查发现,邮轮甲板上的空气污染程度超过了世界上污染最严重的城市。

The undercover investigation on Britain's biggest crew operator P&O Cruises aimed to find out how clean the air holidaymakers breathe when on a ship is.
这项秘密调查针对英国最大的邮轮机构P&O邮轮公司进行,他们的目的是弄清楚度假的人们在游轮上呼吸的空气有多新鲜。

It focused on the levels of "ultra-fine particles" found in the air and around the cruise ship and emitted from the fuel the ships' engines burn.
这次调查主要关注空气中、邮轮周边以及游轮燃油排放出来的“超细颗粒”含量。

But while passengers hope to escape the dirty air of cities for some fresh sea air, the investigation found cruise ships are having a negative impact on the environment. One cruise ship can emit as much particulate matter as a million cars in a day.
游轮乘客们都希望远离空气污浊的城市感受大海清新的空气,可是调查却显示邮轮对环境有害。一艘游轮排放的颗粒物竟然相当于一百万台汽车一天的排放量。

Meanwhile cruise ships are becoming more popular with around two million people from the UK travelling on one every year.
然而随着邮轮越来越受人欢迎,每年都会有大约两百万英国人乘坐邮轮旅行。

By using a P-Trak ultra-fine particle counter, Dispatches said it was able to measure the levels of the ultra-fine particulates on board the P&O Cruises' ship Oceana, which can carry more than 2,000 passengers.
P&O海洋号邮轮可以承载两千多名乘客,《深入报道》表明他们使用了P-Trak超细颗粒计数器测量这艘邮轮上的超细颗粒含量。

The device found that the air on the deck downwind of, and directly next to the ship's funnels, had 84,000 ultra-fine particulates per cubic centimetre.
计数器检测结果显示,在邮轮甲板上烟囱背风处的位置,超细颗粒含量为每立方厘米84000个。

Directly next to the funnels on the deck, the numbers rocketed to 144,000 with a peak at 226,000.
在甲板上紧挨着烟囱的位置,超细颗粒含量上升到了每立方厘米144000个,峰值能达到每立方厘米226000个。

This is more than double the average found in central London's Piccadilly Circus, where using the same device, the Dispatches team recorded 38,400 ultra-fine particulates per cubic centimetre.
节目组的检测人员还使用同样的计数器,检测到伦敦中部皮卡迪利广场的超细颗粒含量为每立方厘米38400个。甲板上的数据是广场中心的两倍多。

While the deck is popular with sun-bathers, passengers are likely to be breathing some of these particulates, which are harmful for health and the environment.
游客们聚集在甲板上晒太阳的时候,很可能就在吸入一些超细颗粒,而这些颗粒对健康和环境都有害。

Speaking to Dispatches, Dr Matthew Loxham said: "It is clear from those results that there are certain areas of the ship that are affected by quite high levels of particulate matter.
马修•罗斯汉姆博士在节目中说:“从这些结果中可以看出,邮轮上某些位置的空气受到了大量微粒物质的污染。”

"These are levels that you would expect to see in the most polluted cities in the world like Delhi and so on."
“而这种污染程度只有在像德里那样污染最严重的城市才会看到。”

Looking at the results, Dr Loxham also said the findings suggested the majority of the particulates were coming directly from the ship's funnels.
罗斯汉姆博士说,调查结果还显示出绝大多数的微粒都是从邮轮的烟囱中排放出来的。

He said: "Short term exposure can cause increasing respiratory symptoms. People who are asthmatic for example, that might give them a wheeze. Similarly for people with cardiovascular disease. Now that is not to say that these levels of particulates on this ship are going to do that but there is much evidence out there to suggest that increase levels of particulates can cause these symptoms."
他说:“与污染空气短时间的接触可能导致呼吸道症状增加。如果有人是哮喘病患者,他就会变得气喘吁吁,患心血管疾病的人也会有相似症状。虽然调查不能证明这些症状是邮轮上的微粒含量导致的,但是很多现象都显示出微粒含量升高就会引起这些呼吸道症状。”

Dr Loxham added that crew members working on the ship and who experienced repeated exposure could experience symptoms "that we are just starting to understand".
罗斯汉姆博士还说,那些游轮上的工作人员和经常暴露在污染气体中的人,也会有呼吸道症状,而“我们才知道这是怎么回事。”

Speaking to the Dispatches team, Daniel Rieger, of the German environment association NABU (Nature And Biodiversity Conservation Union), said: “Ships cause not only greenhouse gas emissions, but also sulphur oxides, nitrogen oxides and particulate matter.
丹尼尔•里格尔在德国环境保护协会NABU(德国自然和生物多样性保护联盟)工作,他在节目中说:“邮轮不仅仅会排放温室气体,还释放硫氧化物、氮氧化物以及微粒物质。”

"Per day one cruise ship emits as much particulate matter as a million cars. So 30 cruise ships pollute as much as all the cars in the United Kingdom.”
“一艘游轮每天排放的颗粒物相当于一百万台汽车的排放量,那么30艘邮轮的污染程度就相当于英国所有汽车引发污染的总和。”

John Maggs, president of the Clean Shipping Coalition, also told Dispatches: “Most large ships burn heavy fuel oil. It’s a residual product from the refining industry, so after the refiners have produced the petrol and diesel we put in our cars, they’re left with what is essentially a waste product. It’s called residual fuel, or heavy fuel oil.
清洁航运联盟负责人约翰·马格斯也和节目组说:“大多数邮轮都烧重燃油,那是炼油产业的残余产物。炼油机产出汽车用的汽油和柴油之后,剩下的基本都是废料产物。这些废料产物就叫剩余燃油或者重燃油。”

"From an environmental point of view, it’s bad because of the air pollution caused by the very high sulphur content. The shipping industry, however, has traditionally liked it because it’s much cheaper than other fuels.”
“重燃油由于硫含量很高,污染环境,所以从环保角度来说这种油不好。但是因为重燃油比其他燃料便宜,所以航运产业一直偏爱它。”

Responding to the findings revealed by the investigation, P&O Cruises said: “Since 2005 we have reduced our fuel consumption by 28 percent, with the accompanying reduction in air emissions.”
P&O邮轮公司对调查结果做出回应说:“我们从2005年至今,燃油消耗量减少了28%,污染气体排放量也随之减少。”

It added that the Oceana is to be fitted with "exhaust gas cleaning systems, which have been installed on 60 ships across its brands".
他们还表示要给海洋号邮轮配备“废气净化系统,他们船队已经有60艘游轮安装了这种系统。”

"This action significantly improves the quality of air emissions. Soot and particulate matter reductions in excess of 80 percent have been achieved.”
“这个措施会明显提升气体排放质量。煤烟以及微粒物质已经减少了超过80%。”

P&O also said that in 2014 it had reduced CO2 emissions by 20 percent and had "renewed its goal to continue reducing the rate”.
P&O邮轮公司还补充说,他们在2014年已经减少了20%的二氧化碳排放量,而且他们还“为继续降低污染物排放设定了新目标”。

It said: “The health, safety and welfare of guests and crew across all our ships is our absolute highest priority… We recognise that there is a public interest… related to particulate matter and related health issues”.
他们说:“我们承认……微粒物质污染和健康问题事关公众利益……游轮上所有游客和船员的健康、安全和幸福才是我们最重视的。”


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